Jan Peter Apel
is what annoys us the most: it is always too tight or it does not run
when we wait for something. That is why it is mostly considered
philosophical. But this is not the point here. In nature, time is
something very concrete, but not tangibly. But it
arises from real
things. It is derived from things that rhythmically change their
position. The earth is once at day in an always same direction to sun.
Since we notice that the most, it became the basis of all time scales.
The (provisionally?) last determination of the obligatory time measure
are a certain number of oscillations of a microwave frequency.
The task of physics is not to
(that's engineering), but to explain what is time.
Without time, nothing would change, everything would be frozen.
Like archaeological found objects for which time seems to have stopped.
In between, that is between standing still and our passage of time,
there is also something else, namely, that time runs slower under
certain conditions. This is called time dilation and is extremely
suspect to ordinary peoples. Of course, that too must be cleared up and
will be done here.
The idea of what would be without time, namely standstill,
leads directly to a logical conclusion: If nothing changes, there is no
time. So, if there is a time, something has to change. So:
time is not only in makrocosm. Even in the small there are movements.
For example, Brownian movements are microscopic movements of the finest
spore seeds on a water surface. The warmer the water is, the more the
spores move because they are nudged by the more moving water molecules.
There are movements in even smaller dimensions, down to the atoms.
There, the electrons move around the atomic nuclei. Not as beads, but
as electromagnetic waves. But these are also movements. Of what is not
yet cleared up.
For an all-encompassing understanding of time, it makes perfect sense, to consider the
"origin" of a unit of time as the time of orbiting of an electron around its nucleus.
That is, matter lives! Externally, this is even measurable when
atoms decay radioactively and thereby release measurable radiation to
For the little one, in which time passes, there are
things are even smaller than atoms. Myons are particles that
radioactively decay into electrons. So there must be some time in these
myons. What is moving cyclically in it? Nobody knows.
of the passage of time in atoms, which ultimately represent an atomic
clock, now serves in an outstanding way to explain what time dilation
If an atom moves (towards whom or what is unclear since
Einstein), then the electrons must follow these movements. Their
attachment to the atomic nucleus is imaginable as with a rope, but on
which they have to "run" independently. But since they are moving
around the atomic nuclei at the speed of light, they can not get any
faster in addition to their orbital velocities of light speed. The
speed required for the forward motion of the electrons thus descends
(vectorial) from the velocity (speed of light) with which the electrons
previously orbited the atomic nuclei. The orbital velocity is thus
slower, the atoms live slower.
But this also makes all
mechanical processes of machines, which are made out of atoms, slower,
because the revolutions of the electrons are the "driving pinions" of
the entire nature. At the speed of light of the atoms, the electrons no
longer revolve around the atomic nuclei, time stands still. Since we
also consist of atoms, it happens to us just the same: all
chemical-biological processes are ultimately only mechanical processes
For nature and therefore also for physics valids:
Time is a
purely mechanical process!
Therfore is time bound to matter, a space can not have time ever.
idea of a "spacetime" is nonsense.