Jan Peter Apel
Time and Time Dilation
First appearance 6.4.2018
The correctness of physical theories is decided by Paul Dirac:
A physical theory is either short, or false!
is often portrayed as mysterious. That may be true for our feelings,
but in physics time is a very exact, even mechanical thing. All
processes in nature are based on movements. These can be followed to
the smallest detail, because ultimately all atoms have to be involved
in all things of nature.
smallest locally movement in macrophysics have the electrons, orbiting
around atomic nuclei. They can be considered as clocks such as "a
revolution is a unit of time". If the electrons did not rotate around the
atomic nuclei, the atoms would be dead. Dead means, that, for example,
no light would be produced by falling of electrons on lower orbits.
Everything would be dark. But not only that, atoms can not react with
others to form molecules. If these smallest movements did not
exist, there would be also no big movements. It could not arise heat, that
is energy, from which forces could arise that move large masses of
atoms. If everything is dead, rigid, there would be no time. Why? Because nothing ever changes. In physics applies:
Time is change.
Where nothing is changing, there is no time
movements of the electrons around the atomic nuclei are time units, so
an atom is a clock. But not only that: if they did not orbit the atomic
nuclei, there would be no time. So:
The orbits of the electrons around their atom nuclei are the time!
Time is something real, namely movement.
all the atoms in the cosmos are not in a vacuum, but in a substance
from which they probably originated. This massless, but effective,
substance is the ether. It is the invisible filling of the apparent
vacuum of the universe. In it nature lives and also we how fishes
in water. Today's science does not say ether to this filling of the
space, because it was discarded by Einstein due to misinterpretations
of the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, although the vacuum
is demonstrably full of something. For this will be said only
abstractly "energy of the vacuum".
movements take place in relation to the ether as best possible
designation of the "full" vacuum, whereby there is a maximum speed,
namely the speed of light. It understands itself in the ether like the
speed of sound in the air.
nature, effective velocities are only those that exist against the
ether. Speeds over empty spaces are only academical, otherwise unreal.
Everything in nature is materially!
Although the ether has no inert mass, it is nevertheless a substance. Concretely
this proves in the case of time by the fact, that there is a real time
delay. It is neither fiction nor ghostly, but mechanically real,
measurable, comprehensible and understandable.
How is it created?
the atoms move, their components, the nucleus and the electrons, must
be move separatly by themselves and in relation to the ether as the
real substance of nature, penetrating all spaces up to the inside of the atoms
(sometimes referred to as "Dirac Lake" according to Paul Dirac, Nobel Prize
1933, who did not share Einstein's opinion on the non-existence of the
ether). Because the electrons (as in waveform) moves by nature around the atomic
nuclei with the speed of light, they orbits the atoms, if the atoms
moves as a whole, more slowly. They must follow the nucleus on a
corkscrew line. Because this paths for each orbit gets longer on this line,
the time for each orbit will be longer and the time will be slower.
With the speed of light, the electrons needs their entire velocity to
remain only at the nucleus and can then no longer perform orbits, the
time in the atoms stands still.
the time passes slower, if atoms moving against the ether. This also
applies to large machines, they runs slower. This process of being
slowed by movements relative to the ether is called "relativistic." It
is said, that in moving objects (spaceships) time runs
"relativistically" slower. That's why time is called "relativistic time".
Nevertheless, one revolution of an electron remains the basis for the
effective time, although it is the relativistic time. There
is only one kind of time for the mechanics of the world, the one that
arises from the orbits of the electrons around the atomic nuclei.
does now Newton's physics, with its "unit time for everything", meaning
zero time, that is without time dilation, come to terms with this
variable time called "relativistic time"?
For this a postulat:
every mechanically repetitive operation of machines, e.g. one
revolution of a motor, always belongs the same number of revolutions of
the electrons around there atomic nuclei of the machine.
In time dilation, the rotational rotations of large machines are slower
to the same extent as the number of revolutions of the electrons around
their atomic nuclei. In conclusion, the electrons can be called
"driving pinions" for all processes in nature. If the electrons moves
no longer, the big ones does not move any more too.
Every revolution of an electron around its nucleus means:
a) for the time the basic section of their growth and
b) for the mechanics the basic section of the progress of movement
sections are constant immutable fixed sizes. So, for a given mechanical
movement section always a certain portion of the temporal continuation
belongs in fixed ratio.
this is the characteristic of Newtonian physics: a same time for all
same processes. Even if these same processes take place
differently in other inertial systems with different speed against
the ether, seen in rest to the ether from the outside. But that is only a relative,
so a wrong view. Newtonian physics is exactly the same in all cases. It
is task from the observer to adapt him to the time into inertial
systems and not vice versa to transfer the processes to himself.
basic measure of time for Newtonian physics is one rotation of an
electron around its nucleus, no matter how slowly the electrons rotate
through time dilation.
This is the secret of why Newtonian physics
is based on relativistic time, because it arises from the true orbiting
of electrons around their atom nuclei.
breaks the previous understanding, that relativistic is something
"above" Newtonian physics. As it turns out, a mistake: relativistic is
Newtonian physics, it works with the actual time of the revolutions of
the electrons around their nuclei, so with the relativistic proper time
of the involved objects or inertial systems.
relativistic time is the materially, so the true, time, actually
arising from the revolutions of the electrons around their atom nuclei.
dilation is just an effect such as the adiabatic temperature change or
the Bernoulli or Coanda effect, nothing else, in no case a different
kind of physics! There is only Newtonian physics, which works with the
mechanical time of the revolutions of the electrons around their atomic
It works in inertial systems, that are systems (whether a single object
like a muon or multi-object systems like a spaceship) within those the
time runs uniform. Their classical definition as systems of
equal velocities, and thus also equal time dilation, is contained therein.
the Earth every horizontal plane is an inertial system, e.g. on a pool
table. In the vertical, the fundamental time-dilation of the planes as
inertial systems decreases according to the decreasing of the escape
velocity of the earth. The
escape velocity is the velocity, that an Earth-based body has in the
vertical direction with respect to the ether.
there is still a cosmonary time, which provides an absolute temporal
reference point. In an object at rest to the ether, that is one without
time dilation, is the "zero time" as the fastest possible from this
cosmos. According to it are determined the age of the cosmos and all absolute movements velocities with respect to the ether (as long as the ether stands still!),
up to the fastest possible, the speed of light. Newtonian velocities,
as well as impulses and energies, on the other hand, reach infinity,
since the minimum effective time, that is the relativistic one, becomes
zero at the speed of light compared to the ether.
nature, and hence in physics, time is changing and indeed a purely
mechanical thing. Therefore space can not have time, time is real! The
problem is only that man is poled on his time, and uses it as a
starting point and reference point for observed events in nature, and
does not heed the time that actually takes place in the observed object. This led to a profound confusion regarding relativistic processes, see also in "Relativistic Factor".
time that runs on the earth's surface is also subject to time dilation.
On the one hand from the gravitational time dilation out of the escape
velocity of the earth and additionally from the dilation out of the
peripheral velocity of the earth's surface (look at "Secret of
is no supra-Newtonian physics, because the relativistic is the normal.
Space-Time is fantasy out of the general theory of relativity, which is
not at all necessary for the functionings of the mechanics of nature.