Jan Peter Apel

The Mystery of Flying

A physical theory first becomes to the truth,
if it can answer more questions than led to its finding
and remains not only one single question.

The theorie for flying, which that can, is the following.

The problem of solving the mystery of flying lies in the fact that air is invisible.
Therefore smoke threads in the wind tunnel becames to the onliest basis for observations about flying.
Smoke threads became to the single platform for all thinkings about flying.

The smoke threads in the wind tunnel seduce to the assumption. that air flows past a wing, even though an airplane moves through the air and not vice versa. Measurements shows, that the wind over the wing is faster than under it. From this came the proposition that this is so because the air behind the wing would have to come together again as before. Because of the longer way on the top of a wing air must have to flow faster.on the up side. In order for it to get faster over the wing, air would have to borrow energy from its internal pressure, thereby creats a Bernoulli vacuum that would essentially hold the plane up. The increase of the air speed above the wing is about 10% at cruising speed. But that is even faster than necessary, so no proof of this theory, but even a proof against it. This so-called path-length-theory and two more are therefore correctly classified by NASA as wrong, see www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/wrong1.html and following.

The rules of physics, which are completely ignored in technology, dictate among other things, that theories must be valid universally. This means, that in there must not be any exceptions or peculiarities in their respective areas. For similar natural phenomena must therefore be a fundamental principle that causes them all. This results in:

The correctly theory of flying must apply to the
subsonic, supersonic and insect flight.

That these seemingly different types of flight technically must be "differently" processed, does not change the fact, that they must have only one common basic principle according to the causal principle of nature. Incidentally, the flight theory of supersonic flight is already the correct theory, how described here for all types of flying.

The Bernoulli negative pressure theory for the continuous subsonic flight looks logical, although the "flow"-lines above the wing are illogically closer to each other than those under the wing and that fakes overpressure, although there is negative pressure. This negativ pressure is named Bernoulli paradox. And it is such a charm of mystery, that everyone is proud to know and believe it. Against this, no unspectacular truth has a chance, even if it is the only right truth. Humans lends more to believe something mysterious than what everyone understands, because they loves at least to have a supposedly unique selling proposition.

Since this so-called Bernoulli theory has not led to any consistent explanation of flying despite efforts up to date, so it can not even be treated in high school teaching, the Coanda effect has been targeted as a better cause of flying. But unlike the Bernoullie effect, it is not even mathematically calculatable and even more dependent only on faith.

All previous theories are characterized in particular by the fact, that they can not provide a direct basic formula for the lift force. A physically correct theory for a natural phenomenon, however, always has to lead to a simple and comprehensible basic formula with its basic principle, which it must contain in principle. If a theory can not do that, it is already wrong.
Physics is criminology: wanted is the true principle of flying and not just logically credible interpretations of images out of the wind tunnel.
All theories, made out of the wind tunnel are wrong, because they evaluate the wind in it as a real flow in the air, in there a plane flies, But it is only a relative, that is an untrue, arising only by the moving view out of a plane. A ladybird on a wing would see the air particles passes over itself as wrongly as we see the stars psses us over the moving surface of the earth. In both cases, however, only the observers move and not the observed: The air particles stand just as quiet over a moving aircraft wing as the stars above our moving earth surface.

The Bernoulli and Coanda theories for flying are wrong,
because they are based on the wrong assumption
that there is a flow on the wing.
But: wind, arised out of a moving view, is not a flow! 

The cause of this false theory is the invention of the wind tunnel by Gebr. Wright. On the premise, that it does not matter if a wing moves through the air or the air moves along a wing, how the above sketched wind tunnel imaged, the image becames not only to the basis for the technique, but also for the search of the cause of flying.
Well, for getting only technical data, it does not matter if the movements are absolute or relative like those in the wind tunnel. Technology only works with correlation data; it does not care about its emergence. That's why aerodynamic engineers are not at all interested on a theory of flying, today's aerodynamics aducation is pure technology. It is impossible to deduce out of the purely empirical (pragmatically) design of the technique of flying with its relative views the physical cause of flying.

The discovery of the theory of flying is a purely physical task, whereby the basic physical laws must be observed. After that is an exchange of movements, as made in the wind tunnel, always an exchange of cause and effect! And that's the biggest mistake that can ever be made in physics. Nevertheless,it was made with the technical justification "that does not matter"! It does not matter for technology, but for physics! The results are many existing false theories of flying: Technology is not physics!.

A physical theory for flying can only be correct if it emerges from the original event. And there a wing moves through the air, which itself has no own movement, no flow. An air flow would only be a real flow, if it is following a pressure gradient from higher to lower pressur. Such one is not exist in the air. The air, through which an airplane flies, is passive and at rest, so it can not produce either a Bernoulli- nor a Coanda effect. It is therefore objective wrong to say, that air would "flow past" a wing or that air would flow by "deflecting" down by an angle of attack of the wings!

The wind tunnel is advantageous for the technology,
one can measure on the plane in rest.
For the study of the physics of flying it has the wrong view,
the wrong coordinate system:
A plane is doing something with the air, so it can fly
and not unturned,
that the air would do something with a wing.

A flow of air against a wing does not exist!

What moves absolutely, ie really, when flying, only becomes manifest when the event is observed in the natural coordinate system. Relative variables, which are changing by changing the coordinate systems, are inadmissible in physical theories. Physically correct theories basically contain exclusively invariant variables, that are unchangeable variables by changing the coordinate system, Wind, arised out of movings, is for example a variant variable, so inadmissible. Seen from the plane, it seems to be an air flow, but this is only a pseudo flow and reflects only the movement of the aircraft. In reality, an aircraft must move in relation to the air, so that the unaffected air area, far enough away from the aircraft (whether or not the air moves against the ground as wind), the natural coordinate system shows. Only from this point of view from the unaffected air can be seen the true movements of the aircraft and the local air movements that enable a plane to fly. For this the following animation.

On display is an airplane with its wing that moves through the air. The identical image of the moving aircraft with its wing can also be seen stationary in the wind tunnel, where the air moves and the aircraft is stationary.The red thick dots are air particles that show, how they moves with the influenced air by the aircraft. In the original show they the absolute air movements, in the wind tunnel the relative, which can be observed from the airplane as seemingly moved. The unfilled thick dots behind the wind tunnel shows the path of the air if the ground were not there.

The truth of flying:
Wings accellerated the air, through which a plane flies, mechanically downwards due to its slightly tilted upwards position (angle of attak, typically 6 degrees) and its forward velocity, Out of this directly arised a "road" of downwardly flowing air (down wash) behind an airplane. As a result out of this arised with parts of the surrounding air the  vortices, who can influence other air planes. This is not noticeable in the wind tunnel, as the horizontal velocity of the air is much greater than its vertical downward velocity. Because the air, which is generated by the wings vertcally downwards, was ignored, it was not recognized, that behind a plane are very large large vortices, who sink dawn!
It took the death of many people by airplane crashes caused by the wakes turbulences until it was painstakingly recognized later. This correct theory of flight would have predicted they unasked.

The physical, that is correct, flight theory according to Newton's force principles, valid for airplanes and insects and for under- and supersonic flight, is:
The lift force is generated kinetically according to Newton's laws of forces as the repulsive force out of accelerated air mass every second. This air mass per second is about as much as the plane itself weighs. This results in the principle formula for lift force, which is understandable and veriviable for elementary schools and everyone. The formula is:

A = ρ AL  v2  (sin α)2  (cos α)2  1[s] 

A is the lift force
AL  is that area, which an airplane sweeps with its wings per second
ρ is the density of the air
α is the angle of attack

The principle of flying is accelerating air masses downwards by wings in milliseconds. Air particles feel their acceleration through the wings down like a blow.

Flying objects heavier than air can only flie by downwards accelerating air masses.

That is the common basic principle of flying,

whether moving the whole plane with its starr wings
 or circling only the wings like helicopters
with slightly inclined upwards angles of attack
 or by swinging high-pitched wings at insects.

Whoever can first, according to the rules of physics, disprove this true Newtonian theory of flying, based on the original process of flying, namely by moved wings against the air in rest, gets from me (only in my lifetime) a Premium of

10,000 €

Mathematical derivations are ruled out because mathematics can only describe symptoms of natural phenomena but never explain their causes ever. For example, mathematics "proves" more than four different theories for the natural phenomenon of gravity, although none of them is correct.

The irrefutability of a theory is not at all a proof of its correctness! The correctness of a physically theory proves physics by itself exclusively by its ability to be able to answer all questions directly with its basic principle, that exist as phenomena around a natural event. This is at flying for example, why the air lifts in front of a wing and why the lift force is distributed in the range of one third below and two thirds above the wing.