Jan Peter Apel
The Mystery of Flying
physical theory first becomes to the truth,
it can answer more questions than led to its finding
and remains not only one single question.
theorie for flying, which that can, is the following.
problem of solving the mystery of flying lies in the fact that air is
smoke threads in the wind tunnel becames to the onliest basis for
observations about flying.
to the single platform for all thinkings about flying.
smoke threads in the wind tunnel seduce to
the assumption. that air
flows past a wing, even though an airplane moves through the air and
not vice versa. Measurements shows, that the wind over the wing is
faster than under it. From this came the proposition that this is so
because the air behind the wing would have to come together again as
before. Because of the longer way on the top of a wing air must have to
flow faster.on the up side. In order for it to get faster over the
wing, air would have to borrow energy from its internal pressure,
thereby creats a Bernoulli vacuum that would essentially hold the plane
up. The increase of the air speed above the wing is about 10% at
cruising speed. But that is even faster than necessary, so no proof of
this theory, but even a proof against it. This so-called
path-length-theory and two more are therefore correctly classified by
NASA as wrong, see www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/wrong1.html and
rules of physics, which are completely ignored in technology, dictate
among other things, that theories must be valid universally. This
means, that in there must not be any exceptions or peculiarities in
their respective areas. For similar natural phenomena must therefore be
a fundamental principle that causes them all. This results in:
correctly theory of flying must apply to the
subsonic, supersonic and
these seemingly different types of flight technically must be
"differently" processed, does not change the fact, that they must have
only one common basic principle according to the causal principle of
nature. Incidentally, the flight theory of supersonic flight is already
the correct theory, how described here for all types of flying.
Bernoulli negative pressure theory for the continuous subsonic flight
looks logical, although the "flow"-lines above the wing are illogically
closer to each other than those under the wing and that fakes
overpressure, although there is negative pressure. This negativ
pressure is named Bernoulli paradox. And it is such a charm of mystery,
that everyone is proud to know and believe it. Against this, no
unspectacular truth has a chance, even if it is the only right truth.
Humans lends more to believe something mysterious than what everyone
understands, because they loves at least to have a supposedly unique
Since this so-called Bernoulli theory has not led to any consistent
explanation of flying despite efforts up to date, so it can not even be
treated in high school teaching, the Coanda effect has been targeted as
a better cause of flying. But unlike the Bernoullie effect, it is not
even mathematically calculatable and even more dependent only on faith.
All previous theories are characterized in
particular by the fact, that they can not provide a direct basic
formula for the lift force. A physically correct theory for a natural
phenomenon, however, always has to lead to a simple and comprehensible
basic formula with its basic principle, which it must contain in
principle. If a theory can not do that, it is already wrong.
is criminology: wanted is the true principle of flying and not just
logically credible interpretations of images out of the wind tunnel.
theories, made out of the wind tunnel are wrong, because they evaluate
the wind in it as a real flow in the air, in there a plane flies, But
it is only a relative, that is an untrue, arising only by the moving
view out of a plane. A ladybird on a wing would see the air particles
passes over itself as wrongly as we see the stars psses us over the
moving surface of the earth. In both cases, however, only the observers
move and not the observed: The air particles stand just as quiet over a
moving aircraft wing as the stars above our moving earth surface.
Bernoulli and Coanda theories for flying are wrong,
they are based on the wrong assumption
there is a flow on the wing.
wind, arised out of a moving view, is not a flow!
cause of this false theory is the invention of the wind tunnel by Gebr.
Wright. On the premise, that it does not matter if a wing moves through
the air or the air moves along a wing, how the above sketched wind
tunnel imaged, the image becames not only to the basis for the
technique, but also for the search of the cause of flying.
for getting only technical data, it does not matter if the movements
are absolute or relative like those in the wind tunnel. Technology only
works with correlation data; it does not care about its emergence.
That's why aerodynamic engineers are not at all interested on a theory
of flying, today's aerodynamics aducation is pure technology. It is
impossible to deduce out of the purely empirical (pragmatically) design
of the technique of flying with its relative views the physical cause
The discovery of the theory of flying is a purely
physical task, whereby the basic physical laws must be observed. After
that is an exchange of movements, as made in the wind tunnel, always an
exchange of cause and effect! And that's the biggest mistake that can
ever be made in physics. Nevertheless,it was made with the technical
justification "that does not matter"! It does not matter for
technology, but for physics! The results are many existing false
theories of flying: Technology is not physics!.
theory for flying can only be correct if it emerges from the original
event. And there a wing moves through the air, which itself has no own
movement, no flow. An air flow would only be a real flow, if it is
following a pressure gradient from higher to lower pressur. Such one is
not exist in the air. The air, through which an airplane flies, is
passive and at rest, so it can not produce either a Bernoulli- nor a
Coanda effect. It is therefore objective wrong to say, that air would
"flow past" a wing or that air would flow by "deflecting" down by an
angle of attack of the wings!
wind tunnel is advantageous for the technology,
can measure on the plane in rest.
the study of the physics of flying it has the wrong view,
wrong coordinate system:
plane is doing something with the air, so it can fly
the air would do something with a wing.
flow of air against a wing does not exist!
moves absolutely, ie really, when flying, only becomes manifest when
the event is observed in the natural coordinate system. Relative
variables, which are changing by changing the coordinate systems, are
inadmissible in physical theories. Physically correct theories
basically contain exclusively invariant variables, that are
unchangeable variables by changing the coordinate system, Wind, arised
out of movings, is for example a variant variable, so inadmissible.
Seen from the plane, it seems to be an air flow, but this is only a
pseudo flow and reflects only the movement of the aircraft. In reality,
an aircraft must move in relation to the air, so that the unaffected
air area, far enough away from the aircraft (whether or not the air
moves against the ground as wind), the natural coordinate system shows.
Only from this point of view from the unaffected air can be seen the
true movements of the aircraft and the local air movements that enable
a plane to fly. For this the following animation.
display is an airplane with its wing that moves through the air. The
identical image of the moving aircraft with its wing can also be seen
stationary in the wind tunnel, where the air moves and the aircraft is
stationary.The red thick dots are air particles that show, how they
moves with the influenced air by the aircraft. In the original show
they the absolute air movements, in the wind tunnel the relative, which
can be observed from the airplane as seemingly moved. The unfilled
thick dots behind the wind tunnel shows the path of the air if the
ground were not there.
The truth of flying:
accellerated the air, through which a plane flies, mechanically
downwards due to its slightly tilted upwards position (angle of attak,
typically 6 degrees) and its forward velocity, Out of this directly
arised a "road" of downwardly flowing air (down wash) behind an
airplane. As a result out of this arised with parts of the surrounding
air the vortices, who can influence other air planes. This is
noticeable in the wind tunnel, as the horizontal velocity of the air is
much greater than its vertical downward velocity. Because the air,
which is generated by the wings vertcally downwards, was ignored, it
was not recognized, that behind a plane are very large large vortices,
who sink dawn!
It took the death of many people by airplane
crashes caused by the wakes turbulences until it was painstakingly
recognized later. This correct theory of flight would have predicted
The physical, that is correct, flight theory
according to Newton's force principles, valid for airplanes and insects
and for under- and supersonic flight, is:
The lift force is
generated kinetically according to Newton's laws of forces as the
repulsive force out of accelerated air mass every second. This air mass
per second is about as much as the plane itself weighs. This results in
the principle formula for lift force, which is understandable and
veriviable for elementary schools and everyone. The formula is:
A = ρ · AL · v2 ·
(sin α)2 ·
(cos α)2 · 1[s]
A is the lift
is that area, which an airplane sweeps with its wings per second
ρ is the
density of the air
α is the angle of attack
The principle of
flying is accelerating air masses downwards by wings in milliseconds.
particles feel their acceleration through the wings down like a blow.
objects heavier than air can only flie by downwards accelerating air
That is the common basic principle of flying,
moving the whole plane with its starr wings
or circling only the wings like helicopters
with slightly inclined upwards angles of attack
or by swinging high-pitched wings at insects.
can first, according
to the rules of physics, disprove this true Newtonian
theory of flying, based on the original process of flying, namely by
moved wings against the air in rest, gets from me (only in my lifetime)
a Premium of
derivations are ruled out because mathematics can only
describe symptoms of natural phenomena but never explain their
causes ever. For example, mathematics "proves" more than four different
theories for the natural phenomenon of gravity, although none of them
irrefutability of a theory is not at all a proof of its correctness!
The correctness of a physically theory proves physics by itself
exclusively by its
ability to be able to
answer all questions directly with its basic principle,
that exist as phenomena around a natural event. This
is at flying for example, why the air lifts in front of a wing and why
the lift force is distributed in the range of one third below and two
thirds above the wing.