Jan Peter Apel

1.11.2019

The Event Horizon of a Black Hole

It is idealized the spherical surface around the star of a black hole, from which a return to the outside is impossible for any body in it. There are astonishing senseful and senseless ideas about the situation on it. Schwarzschild calculated the radius of the event horizon as the first person. There is up to the highest circles of physicists the general view that you can drive past with a spaceship with a little distance to it and have a look. A deadly assumption. Stephan Hawking, the greatest physicist of recent times, also saw a boundary in the event horizon, over which virtual particles, resting there allow, a mass transfer from the inside to the outside as they break down into anti-matter and normal matter, one moving inwards and the other outwards, so that the mass of the core of a black hole could decrease again. One of many theses that emerge from mostly mathematical fantasies without asking nature, if it really can be as it is mathematically thought.

The rules of nature and reason and the sense of reality lead to completely different properties of the event horizon. Above all, a spaceship is lost imperceptibly and unrecoverably far away to it. Neither bodies, nor the particles addressed by Hawking, are in rest on the horizon of events.

For example, to get away from the earth in comparison to it, a velocity equal to the escape velocity is required. On mountains this is lower or in other words, the escape velocity becomes smaller with increasing distance from celestial bodies. On the surface of a black hole the escape velocity is more than the speed of light, so nothing can escape. Only at the event horizon mathematically determinable according to Schwarzschild has the escape velocity decrease to the speed of light. From there, there is the (theoretical) possibility to escape from a black hole, which is the definition of the event horizon.

For example, if a rocket shall float one foot above its launch pad, it would have to constantly apply the gravitational acceleration which belongs to the escape velocity at that point so it do not sink. Likewise, a rocket (and also the Hawking contemplated particles) would have to do that at the event horizon, but there is an acceleration of gravity that belongs to the speed of light and is probably infinite.

A hovering against the falling back by means of a drive is technically not possible at the event horizon due to a lack of sufficient fuel supply and Hawking's particles would have no drive at all. Another cause makes hovering at this point completely impossible anyway. On all celestial bodies there is a gravitational time dilation for all things, resulting from the respective escape velocities. At the event horizon this is according to the prevailing escape velocity at the speed of light 100%. The time running in a rocket on this place is therefore zero, the time in the rocket stands still. No fuel atom combines more with an oxygen atom, or ions no longer move in a magnetic field or, with nuclear propulsion, no single decay of the fuel atoms takes place.

It should be noted:

At the event horizon of a black hole, there is an escape velocity in the amount of the speed of light against a highest acceleration of gravity, with which no escape is possible, especially as the time dilation at this location makes any mechanical drive fall asleep.

What remains? Only to orbit a black hole with the speed of light. Where, at what distance would that be? Very very very much further away, mathematics freaks requires to find it out. But such an approach to a black hole would also be nonsense: the occupants of a spaceship could not see anymore, they would be frozen by time dilation. So the spaceship would have to slow down and stay very more away. But if it fell below the minimum distance even at a single point, it would be lost and crashes into the black hole.

For travel in space black holes are invisible traps, because you can not see them and distances to them are not directly measurable. In addition to observing the starry sky in advance and detecting growing distortions of constellations behind the black hole, no more accurate location determinations are possible to a black hole. Only probes could approach black holes and send radio signals back. But: even before reaching the event horizon, the radio frequencies are strongly redshifted over the longwave range up to zero at the event horizon! The cause: the wavelengths increase because the waves have to flow against a slowing 'headwind', so they get faster. The headwind consist of a 'something', against that the waves define themselves. These wavelength magnifications are concretely measured on the earth on rising light, what the prov for the predicted is. And so there is a "something" flowing too into the earth.

Stephan Hawking's virtual particles would have to move away from a black hole with the speed of light and simultaneously against a maximum gravitational contra-acceleration in order to be able to remain at least at the place of the event horizon. How could they do that? How would they know in which direction they have to flow? In truth, they simply fall into the black holes with the "something" (or are they this something?) into black holes, with everything else that is in this "something" from dust to stars. The prediction: this "something" is the ether, that even really exist.